History of Delhi !

    History of Agra|  History of Jaipur


The Indian capital city of Delhi has a long history, including a history as the capital of several empires. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya Period (c. 300 BC); since then, the site has seen continuous settlement. In 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273-236 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspur. Two sandstone pillars inscribed with the edicts of Ashoka were brought to by Firuz Shah Tughluq in the 14th century. The famous Iron pillar near the Qutub Minar was commissioned by the emperor Kumara Gupta I of the Gupta dynasty (320-540) and transplant Delhi during the 10th century. Eight major cities have been situated in the Delhi area. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi.

Though settlements have been dated to have been taking place in Delhi for millennia, there is no record to stand by that claim. Delhi is generally considered a close to 5000-year old city, as per Ancient Indian text The Mahabharata, since the first ever mention of the city is found in this religious scripture. Therefore, except the scripture and some related heritage like the Yogmaya Temple, archaeological evidences to book the city's Ancient history are as good as naught. As a result, Delhi's Ancient history finds no records and this period may be regarded as the lost period of its history. Extensive coverage of Delhi's history begins with the onset of the Delhi Sultanate in the 12th century. Since then, Delhi had been the seat of Islamic and British rulers until India's independence in 1947.

The core of Delhi's tangible heritage is Islamic, spanning over seven centuries of Islamic rule over the city, with some British-styled architectures and zones in Lutyens' Delhi dating to the British rule in India. Whatever records exist of Delhi- in the form of scriptures or archaeological evidences, they crown Delhi as the Capital city of some empire or the other all through, with minor random breaks in between, making Delhi one of the longest serving Capitals and one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world.[1][2] It is considered to be a city built, destroyed and rebuilt several times, as outsiders who successfully invaded the Indian Subcontinent would ransack the existing capital city in Delhi, and those who came to conquer and stay would be so impressed by the city's strategic location as to make it their capital and rebuild it in their own way


India Gate and Rajpath

Situated along the ceremonial Rajpath avenue (meaning King's Way) in New Delhi, India Gate is a memorial raised in honour of the Indian soldiers who died during the Afghan wars and World War I.[1] The names of the soldiers who died in these wars are inscribed on the walls. The cenotaph (or shrine) in the middle is constructed with black marble and depicts a rifle placed on its barrel, crested by a soldier's helmet. Each face of the cenotaph has inscribed in gold the words Amar Jawan (in Hindi, meaning Immortal Warrior). The green lawns at India Gate are a popular evening and holiday rendezvous for young and old alike. Every year the Republic day celebrations are made in Delhi.The armymen and other citizens of India who are awarded or who participate in the celebration walk through the Rajpath



Sansad Bhavan

Sansad Bhavan or the Parliament of India is a circular building designed by the British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912–1913. Construction began in 1921, and in 1927 the building was opened as the home of the Council of State, the Central Legislative Assembly, and the Chamber of Princes.




Rashtrapati Bhavan

Built with a mix of Western and Indian styles, Rashtrapati Bhavan was originally built for the Governor General of India. Inaugurated in 1931 as the Viceregal Lodge, the name was changed in 1959 after India became a republic. Now it is the Presidential Palace of India.






Humayun's Tomb

Humayun's Tomb was built for Humayun's widow, Hamida Banu Begum. Designed by a Persian architect named Mirak Mirza Ghiyas, the structure was begun in 1562 and completed in 1565. The tomb established a standard for all later Mughal monuments, which followed its design, most notably the Taj Mahal




Purana Quila

The Purana Quila (Old Fort) is a very good example of Mughal military architecture.[2] Built by Pandavas, renovated by Humayun, with later modifications by Sher Shah Suri, the Purana Quila is a monument of bold design, which is strong, straightforward, and every inch a fortress. It is different from the well-planned, carefully decorated, and palatial forts of the later Mughal rulers. Purana Quila is also different from the later forts of the Mughals, as it does not have a complex of palaces, administrative, and recreational buildings as is generally found in the forts built later on. The main purpose of this now dilapidated fort was its utility with less emphasis on decoration. The Qal'a-I-Kunha Masjid and the Sher are two important monuments inside the fort. It was made by Aqeel in 1853


Red Fort

The decision for constructing the Red Fort was made in 1639, when Shah Jahan decided to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi. Within eight years, Shahjahanabad was completed with the Red Fort-Qila-i-Mubarak (fortunate citadel) — Delhi's first fort — ready in all its magnificence[citation needed] to receive the Emperor. Though much has changed with the large-scale demolitions during the British occupation of the fort, its important structures have survived.On every independence day the Flag of India is hoisted by the Prime Minister of India here


Salimgarh Fort

Salimgarh Fort, which is now part of the Red Fort complex, was constructed on an island of the Yamuna River in 1546. But a gate called the Bahadur Shahi Gate for entry into the Fort from the northern side was constructed only in 1854-55 by Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal ruler of India. The gate was built in brick masonry with moderate use of red sandstone. The fort was used during the Uprising in 1857 and also as a prison which housed Zebunnisa daughter of Aurangzeb and the British imprisoned the freedom fighters of the INA. The layout of the Red Fort was organized to retain and integrate this site with the Salimgarh Fort through the Bahadur Shah Gate. The fort has been renamed as Swatantrata Senani Smarak and a plaque at the entrance to the fort attests to this.

Qutub Minar

The Qutub Minar is located in Qutb complex, Mehrauli in South Delhi. It was built by Qutub-ud-din Aibak of the Slave Dynasty, who took possession of Delhi in 1206. It is a fluted red sandstone tower, which tapers up to a height of 72.5 meters and is covered with intricate carvings and verses from the Qur'an. Qutub-ud-din Aibak began constructing this victory tower as a sign of Muslim domination of Delhi and as a minaret for the muezzin to call the faithful to prayer.


However, only the first story was completed by Qutub-ud-din. The other stories were built by his successor Iltutmish. The two circular stories in white marble were built by Ferozshah Tughlaq in 1368, replacing the original fourth story.


The balconies in the tower are supported by exquisite stalactite designs. The tapering tower has pointed and circular flutings on the first storey and star-shaped ones on the second and third stories.


The Qutub Minar is also significant for what it represents in the history of Indian culture. In many ways, the Qutub Minar, the first monument built by a Muslim ruler in India, heralded the beginning of a new style of art and architecture that came to be known as the Indo-Islamic style. Other monuments around the Qutub complex, are Jamali Kamali Mosque and Tomb, Balban's tomb, Quli Khan's Tomb, Rajon Ki Baoli in Mehrauli Archaeological Park, besides Jahaz Mahal and Adham Khan's Tomb near by


Jama Masjid

The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa, commonly known as Jama Masjid, is the principal mosque of Old Delhi. Commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and completed in the year 1656, it is one of the largest and best known mosques in India





Lotus Temple

The Lotus Temple is a Bahá'í House of Worship, situated in South Delhi and shaped like a lotus. It was built by Bahá'í community


Raj Ghat

On the bank Yamuna River, which flows past Delhi, there is Raj Ghat, the final resting place of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation. It has become an essential point of call for all visiting dignitaries. Two museums dedicated to Gandhi are situated nearby


Shanti Vana

Lying close to the Raj Ghat, the Shanti Vana (literally, the forest of peace) is the place where India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was cremated. The area is now a beautiful park adorned by trees planted by visiting dignitaries and heads of state.


National Zoological Park

The National Zoological Park is a 176-acre (71 ha) zoo near the Old Fort in Delhi, India. The zoo is home to about 1350 animals representing almost 130 species of animals and birds from around the world.


Other places of interest

On the bank Yamuna River, is the serene and final resting place of Mahatma Gandhi the father of the nation. Raj Ghat where visiting dignitaries pay homage.Two museums dedicated to Gandhi are situated nearby. Lying close to the Raj Ghat, the Shanti Vana (literally, the forest of peace) is the place where India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was cremated. The area is lush green with saplings which have now grown into trees planted by visiting dignitaries and heads of state. Buddha Jayanti Park which is on the Ridge Road is a well maintained park for the public. Many Bollywood movies have been shot here. Delhi has a mix of the traditional and modern. Where you might see the latest car on the road, there might be a bullock cart alongside.It is a melting pot of all kinds of people and a visit to this wonderful city is a must.